Typography in Graphic Design
How to use Type for Layouts
The bulk of what we read is BODY COPY.
Paragraphs of type are referred to as body copy. Paragraphs
Serif or Sans Serif
The Two Main Kinds of Fonts:Serif or Sans Serif
Serif fonts have that little detail at the end of the letter strokes. They are traditional and can be found as text in books and copy in newspapers.
Sans means "without," so sans serif fonts are those without that extra detail on the ends. Sans serif fonts are more casual and contemporary.
In the U.S. at least, body copy is most often set in serif
faces for most books and newspapers, especially. Experts seldom
agree on the reasons for the use of serif or sans serif
faces for body copy. Ultimately you will decide based on
the needs and wishes of your audience, your clients, and
your own sense of what is appropriate.
What follows are guidelines and rules of thumb only.
A unit of measure in typography which measures the vertical height of
type from highest ascender to lowest descender and includes a small shoulder
of extra space. There are approximately 72 points to the inch and
12 points is equal to one pica.So how do you choose a specific typeface
for body copy, and why?
1. In the US at
least, SERIF faces are the norm for most books and newspapers making them
familiar and comfortable as a body text font.
5. Avoid SCRIPT or handwriting typefaces as a body text font. Some
exceptions: cards and invitations where the text is set in short lines
with extra line spacing.
A unit of measure that is approximately 1/6th of an inch and measures the length of a line of type or a column of type. One pica is equal to 12 points or one inch.
1. Use picas for measuring column width and depth, margins, and other larger distances.
Is the space between lines of text. Also called Leading, pronounced ledd-ing, its name comes from the practice of using metal strips (usually lead) of varying widths to separate lines of text in the days of metal type.
General Type Terminology
Ascender: The part of lowercase letters (such as k, b, and d) that rise above the x-height of the other lowercase letters.
Baseline: The imaginary line on which the majority of the characters in a typeface rest.Descender The part of lowercase letters (such as y, p, and q) that descends below the baseline of the other lowercase letters in a font face. In some typefaces, the uppercase 3 and Q also descend below the baseline.
Counter: The white space enclosed by a letterform, whether wholly enclosed (as in "d" or "o") or partially (as in "c" or "m").
Descender: The part of lowercase letters (such as y, p, and q) that descends below the baseline of the other lowercase letters in a font face. In some typefaces, the uppercase 3 and Q also descend below the baseline.
Sans serif: A type face that is without serifs. The ends of the strokes are usually square as in Helvetica.
Serif: Small decorative strokes that are added to the end of a letter's main strokes.
Stress: in a typeface, the axis around which the strokes are drawn: oblique (negative or positive) or vertical. Not to be confused with the angle of the strokes themselves (for instance, italics are made with slanted strokes, but may not have oblique stress).
X-height: Traditionally, x-height is the height of the lowercase letter x. It is also the height of the body of lowercase letters in a font, excluding the ascenders and descenders. Some lower-case letters that do not have ascenders or descenders still extend a little bit above or below the x-height as part of their design. The x-height can vary greatly from typeface to typeface at the same point size.